Glossary of Terms & Links


Accommodations: Supports or services provided to help a student access the general curriculum and validly demonstrate learning.

Adaptations: Any procedure intended to meet an educational situation with respect to individual differences in ability or purpose.

Annual Goal: A statement that describes what a child with a disability can reasonably be expected to accomplish within a twelve_month period in the child's special education program. There should be a direct relationship between the annual goals and the present levels of educational performance.

Annual Improvement Goals: Goals which describe the district's desired rate of improvement for students.

Assistive Technology: Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially or off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.

Assistive Technology Services: Any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.

Baseline Performance: To measure baseline performance, a point in time is selected from which one can monitor changes or improvement in student performance.

Behavioral Intervention Plan: Written, specific, purposeful, and organized plan which describes positive behavioral interventions and other strategies that will be implemented to address goals for a student's social, emotional, and behavioral development. For students whose behavior prompts disciplinary action by the school,
the behavioral intervention plan addresses the behavior(s) of concern that led to conducting a functional behavioral assessment.

Benchmarks (Major Milestones): Are major milestones which specify skill or performance levels a student needs to accomplish toward reaching his or her annual goal.

Competencies: A competency is a learned student performance statement which can be accurately repeated and measured. Competencies function as the basis for building the instructional program.

Consensus: The mutual feeling that all concerns have been
addressed and that everyone has been heard and understood.

Content Standards: Describe the goals for individual student achievement. They specify what students should know and be able to do in identified disciplines or subject areas. (See 3.3.2)

Continuum of Services: For preschool children, ages three through five, means the availability of different types of settings where specialized services may be delivered; for school_age children means the availability of different types of education environments. Course of Study: A general statement that identifies the career path that is based on the student's vision and his or her needs, interests, and preferences.

Critical Skills: Are knowledge or performance skills that are essential to the progress of a student.

Discrepancy Conclusion: A comparison of the student with disabilities with peers at two points in time __ at the beginning of the IEP period, and at the point of the annual review.

District Standards: District goals for student achievement and performance that can be measured by measuring the improvement of students' skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, mathematics, reasoning, studying, and technological literacy.

District-wide Assessment: A large_scale academic achievement assessment.

Extended School Year Services: Special education and related services that are provided to a child with a disability beyond the normal school year of the public agency; in accordance with the child's IEP; at no cost to the parents of the child; and meet the standards of the SEA.

Federal Regulations Topic Index

Functional Behavioral Assessment: Assessment that enhances an understanding of the purpose and function of a student's behaviors and subsequently provides information that leads to interventions and needed supports.

General Curriculum: A description of the standards and
benchmarks adopted by an LEA or schools within an LEA that applies to ALL children. It is applicable to children with disabilities as well as nondisabled children and related to the content of the curriculum and not to the setting in which it is used. It is the basis of planning instruction for all students.

General Education Intervention: Are attempts to resolve presenting problems or behaviors of concern in the general education environment prior to conducting a full and individual evaluation.

Independence Conclusion: Is a judgment about the outcome from the educational efforts related to the IEP goal. It is based on information about the individual's performance improvement.

Individualized Education Program (IEP) : A written statement for a child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised.

Instructional Services: Are the specially designed instruction and accommodations provided by special education instructional personnel to eligible individuals.

Least Restrictive Environment: Means that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled.

Limited English Proficiency: Is when an individual's primary language is something other than English.

Modifications: Are changes made to the content and
performance expectations for students.

Monitoring Strategy: Is a guide to how data will be collected to make decisions about the progress of a student and it establishes the decision_making plan for examining data collected.

Performance Standards: Standards that specify how good is good enough and describe at least three levels of student performance. The federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) requires that at least three levels of performance be established to assist in determining which students have or have not achieved a satisfactory or proficient level of performance for reading and mathematics. Districts may decide to provide more
than three performance levels.

Physical Education: Is the term of development of physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns; and skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group names and sports (including intramural and lifetime sports). The term also refers to special physical education, adaptive physical education, movement, education, and motor development.

Present Level of Educational Performance: Is a summary statement which describes the student's current achievement in the areas of need as determined by an evaluation.

Primary Learning Medium: The primary learning medium is the medium most frequently used by a student with a visual impairment during classroom instruction. A primary learning medium can also be utilized in a wide variety of settings inside and outside the classroom. It should permit independence and efficiency in both
reading and writing. A primary learning medium will become a primary living medium. It must, therefore, accommodate academic, nonacademic, and vocational needs and be applicable to adult activities following the termination of school.

Progress Monitoring: Is a method of monitoring a student's progress that enables the IEP Team to discern whether changes need to be made in the IEP.

Related Services: Means developmental, corrective, and other services that are required to assist an individual with a disability to benefit from special education.

Review and Revision of the IEP: Each agency shall initiate and conduct meetings to review each eligible individual's IEP periodically and, if appropriate, revise its provisions. A meeting must be held for this purpose at least once a year.

Secondary Learning Medium: A secondary learning medium is a medium that is learned in order to allow a student with visual impairment to perform specific tasks not easily performed in the primary learning medium. It may alleviate fatigue experienced when using the primary learning medium for extended periods of time. It may be appropriate when a visual prognosis indicates a future loss
of vision and, therefore a changing learning medium. It may also be appropriate when functional assessment criteria suggest the student may benefit by using different media under some conditions.
Short_term Objectives: Measurable, intermediate steps between a student's present level of educational performance and the annual goals of the student.

Special Education: Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.

Standard: A clear statement that expresses what students are expected to know and be able to do.

Supplementary Aids and Services: Services provided in order for an eligible individual to be served in the general education classroom environment, which may include intensive short_term specially designed instruction; educational interpreters; readers for individuals with visual impairments; special education assistants; special education assistants for individuals with physical disabilities for assistance in and about school, and for transportation;
materials; and specialized or modified instructionally related
equipment for use in the school.

Support Services: are the specially designed instruction and activities which augment, supplement or support the educational program of eligible individuals.

Transition: Is a coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability that is designed with an outcome_oriented process, that promotes movement from school to post_school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation.

Transportation: Is a related service that refers to the means by which a student travels to and from school.

Vocational Education: Means organized educational programs that are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment, or for additional preparation for a career requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree.




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